Cardinal Numbers 1 to 100

  • 1: één / een
  • 2: twee
  • 3: drie
  • 4: vier
  • 5: vijf
  • 6: zes
  • 7: zeven
  • 8: acht
  • 9: negen
  • 10: tien
  • 11: elf
  • 12: twaalf
  • 13: dertien
  • 14: veertien
  • 15: vijftien
  • 16: zestien
  • 17: zeventien
  • 18: achttien
  • 19: negentien
  • 20: twintig
  • 21: eenentwintig
  • 22: tweeëntwintig
  • 23: drieëntwintig
  • 24: vierentwintig
  • 25: vijfentwintig
  • 26: zesentwintig
  • 27: zevenentwintig
  • 28: achtentwintig
  • 29: negenentwintig
  • 30: dertig
  • 31: eenendertig
  • 32: tweeëndertig
  • 33: drieëndertig
  • 34: vierendertig
  • 35: vijfendertig
  • 36: zesendertig
  • 37: zevenendertig
  • 38: achtendertig
  • 39: negenendertig
  • 40: veertig
  • 41: eenenveertig
  • 42; tweeënveertig
  • 43: drieënveertig
  • 44: vierenveertig
  • 45: vijfenveertig
  • 46: zesenveertig
  • 47: zevenenveertig
  • 48: achtenveertig
  • 49: negenenveertig
  • 50: vijftig
  • 51: eenenvijftig
  • 52: tweeënvijftig
  • 53: drieënvijftig
  • 54: vierenvijftig
  • 55: vijfenvijftig
  • 56: zesenvijftig
  • 57: zevenenvijftig
  • 58: achtenvijftig
  • 59: negenenvijftig
  • 60: zestig
  • 61: eenenzestig
  • 62: tweeënzestig
  • 63: drieënzestig
  • 64: vierenzestig
  • 65: vijfenzestig
  • 66: zesenzestig
  • 67: zevenenzestig
  • 68: achtenzestig
  • 69: negenenzestig
  • 70: zeventig
  • 71: eenenzeventig
  • 72: tweeënzeventig
  • 73: drieënzeventig
  • 74: vierenzeventig
  • 75: vijfenzeventig
  • 76: zesenzeventig
  • 77: zevenenzeventig
  • 78: achtenzeventig
  • 79: negenenzeventig
  • 80: tachtig
  • 81: eenentachtig
  • 82: tweeëntachtig
  • 83: drieëntachtig
  • 84: vierentachtig
  • 85: vijfentachtig
  • 86: zesentachtig
  • 87: zevenentachtig
  • 88: achtentachtig
  • 89: negenentachtig
  • 90: negentig
  • 91: eenennegentig
  • 92: tweeënnegentig
  • 93: drieënnegentig
  • 94: vierennegentig
  • 95: vijfennegentig
  • 96: zesennegentig
  • 97: zevenennegentig
  • 98: achtennegentig
  • 99: negenennegentig
  • 100: honderd

There are some interesting things here.

The use of “één” (with the acute accents) is used to disambiguate the number from the indefinite article. The number has the accents. If there is no ambiguity then the accents need not be used.

For example:

  • Ik heb een hond.” – I have a dog.
  • ik heb één hond” – I have one dog.

From 21 to 99, excluding multiples of 10) the number is made up of the unit and the tens (unlike English which is tens then unit). So, 98 is “achtennegentig” which decomposed is “acht en negentig” (lit. eight and ninety).

There is an umlaut (two dots over a letter) on one of the letter Es in 22, 23, 32, 33, etc. This indicates the start of a new syllable when it could be ambiguous.

Introducing Personal Subject Pronouns

The subject pronoun is the word you use to describe who is performing the action in a sentence.

Number Person Stressed Unstressed Translation & notes
Singular First ik ‘k I
Second jij je you (informal)
u you (formal)
Third hij ie he
zij ze she
het ‘t it
Plural First wij we we
Second jullie you (informal)
u you (formal)
Third zij ze they

So, when to use each?

Featured image

Going by the Duolingo app they seem to be interchangeable. However, it seems it is much more common to use the unstressed versions in speech than in writing.

Introducing the Definite Article

I like to know why things are the way they are in languages, so even although I’m following the Duolingo course to learn Dutch, when I come across a grammatical construct that differs from the way it works in English, I want to find out why. Duolingo doesn’t teach this way, but my curiosity gets the better of me. Most of the time I’ll try and work it out, and sometimes if I can’t figure it out I’ll look it up.

De vs. Het

So, why “het meisje” (the girl) or “het sap” (the juice), but “de man” (the man) & “de jongen” (the boy)?

At initial inspection I thought Dutch must have masculine and feminine articles, but “de vrouw” (the woman) which I’d seen earlier doesn’t fit that hypothesis.

Dutch has a concept of common (“de”) and neuter (“het”) nouns. I asked a dutch person how you tell the difference if you’ve never seen the word before and all I got was a shrugged response back.

Unlike Spanish, where there is a rule that covers most cases in determining the type of noun, in Dutch you just have to remember each on a case-by-case basis. In fact there are some general rules, but all seem to have exceptions – I’ll go into them later on. Having said that there are many more common nouns, hence the name, than neuter nouns.