Conjugating Verbs: Present Tense (2)

Present tense verbs are normally conjugated by taking the stem of the verb then applying the appropriate ending to it depending on the subject of the sentence. However, there are some spelling rules to observe in certain situations.

Long vowels

Screenshot from Duolingo
Screenshot from Duolingo
Screen shot from Duolingo
Screen shot from Duolingo

The verb spreken (to speak), and some others like it, needs some additional adjustment.

Spreken consists of two syllables, an open syllable and a closed syllable (spre~ken). However in the singular forms the verb changes (Ik spreekJij spreekt). This is because the stem on its own is a single closed syllable. This means that the long vowel must double up, hence the “e” becomes “ee”.

Short vowels

 

Screen shot from Duolingo
Screen shot from Duolingo
Screen shot from Duolingo
Screen shot from Duolingo

The verb kennen (to know) consists of two closed syllables (ken~nen). Because the vowels are not doubled up they are short vowels. When the verb is reduced to its stem it becomes simply ken. In the singular persons the conjugations are ik ken, and jij/hij/zij kent.

Consonant shifts

Some verbs change the last consonant of the stem when the ending changes. The z and s interchange, and v and f interchange.

For example, the z in lezen (to read) becomes an s in the following forms: ik lees, and jij leest, but wij lezen stays the same as the infinitive.

Another example is that the v in schrijven (to write) becomes an f in the following forms: ik schrijf, and jij schrijft, but wij schrijven stays the sam

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Conjugating verbs: Present Tense

There are likely going to be many posts about verbs. However, to start with here’s how to conjugate the regular form of the present tense.

De man springt op de trampoline.
De man springt op de trampoline.

Using the verb “to jump” (springen) as an example:

First take the “en” ending off the verb to get the stem. So in this example, “springen” becomes “spring”. Then use the following table to conjugate it into the form needed depending on the subject (I, you, he, she, we, they, etc.) of the sentence.

Subject Example Ending Translation & Notes
ik spring I jump
jij springt t You (informal singular) jump
u springt t You (formal singular) jump
hij springt t He jumps
zij springt t She jumps
het springt t It jumps
wij springen en We jump
jullie springen en You (informal plural) jump
u springen en You (formal plural) jump
zij springen en They jump

There are some spelling rules that come in to play in certain cases, but that will be covered later. The above is the basics of conjugating a regular verb in the present tense.

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